Georghios Loizou





1943 – 1949

Elementary School

1949 – 1955

Pancyprian Commercial Lyceum, Larnaca, Cyprus (98%)

1955 – 1957

Teachers' Training College, Morphou, Cyprus (Distinction)

University Education:


University of London

BA in Mathematics (First Class Honours),


University of London

Postgraduate Diploma in Numerical Analysis


University of London

PhD in Computation Methods – Accuracy estimates in matrix computations (externally examined by the late James Hardy Wilkinson, FRS)

Positions Held:

1957 – 1960   School Teacher


1967 – 1968   Lecturer                                    

Department of Mathematics and Operations Research, Hatfield Polytechnic

1968 – 1980   Lecturer         


1981 – 1990   Reader

Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, Birkbeck, University of London

1990 – 2003   Professor


2003 –             Emeritus Professor



Other Qualifications:

Member of the British Computer Society

Member of the IEEE Computer Society

Chartered Engineer


Ph.D. theses supervised:

T.I. Fenner                                  Some results on condition numbers and matrix scaling, January 1978.

El-S.N.O. El-Shebini                 FEDOS: A finite element database for offshore structures, July 1985.

S.J. Maybank                             A theoretical study of optical flow*, March 1988.

P. Thanisch                                 Logical scheme design using multivalued dependencies in the relational model of databases, February 1990.

M. Levene                                  The nested universal relation database model, May 1990.

N.J. Martin                                  Representation of data semantics using sentences of simple form, June 1990.

K.J. Jones                                    Multiplication-free parallel computation of the discrete Fourier transform, May 1992.

S. Reddi                                        Using optical flow for the recovery of motion parameters and for gaze control, August 1993.

P.D. Sozou                                  Studies in optical flow and refraction, February 1994.

P. Pouyioutas                            Formalising the extended object-oriented database model, March 1996.

G. O’Shea                                    Access control in operating systems, December 1997.

S. Jami                               Learning quality rules from sparse and uncertain data, December 2000.

J. Crampton                                Authorization and antichains, April 2002.

S. Counsell                                  On the fidelity of software, June 2002.

T. Hackworth                             A GA-based approach to arms races, January 2004.

E.C. Cheng                       An organisation model to support dynamic cooperative work and workflow, July 2004.

R. Najjar                            An empirical study on encapsulation and refactoring in the object-oriented paradigm, September 2008.

P.T. Daniel                        Cohabitation of programmable parametric graphics modelling and design analysis, March 2009.

* Revised and published as Theory of Reconstruction from Image Motion, Springer Series in Information Sciences 28, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993.

† Revised and published as The Nested Universal Relation Database Model, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 595, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992.

Ph.D. theses examined:

N.G. Gudgin                         Determination of eigensolutions of arbitrary matrices using simultaneous iteration accelerated by Jacobi-like methods, Imperial College, 1975.

S.A. Khaddaj                         The solution of ordinary differential equations on parallel computer architectures, Queen Mary and Westfield College, 1990.

R. Souah                                 Une sémantique algébrique pour bases de données orientées object, Université de Paris-Sud, 1999.

S. Lellahi                                 Habilitation à diriger des recherches, Université Paris-Nord 13, 2001.

K. Proedrou                          Rigorous measures of confidence for pattern recognition and regression, Royal Holloway, 2003.

M. Garuba                             Performance study of a COTS distributed DBMS adapted for multi-level security, Royal Holloway, 2004.

Y. W. Cheung                       Une contribution à l’organisation des données multidimensionelles, University de Cergy-Pontoise, 2005.

A.A Sofokleous                   An MPEG-21 dynamic content adaptation framework, Brunel University, 2007. 

A.G. Money                           The ELVIS technique: entertainment-led video summarisation that is     personalised according to user physiological responses, Brunel University, 2007


Teaching and, in general, responsible, over the years, for the following M.Sc. options:

Numerical Methods

Computer Methods in Operations Research

Combinatorics, Optimisation and Complexity

Optimisation and Graph Theoretic Techniques

Data Structures and Programming

Database Theory

Logic and Logic Programming (Prolog)

Course Development:

Introduced a taught M.Phil course several years ago with a view to aid new research students. The programme of lecture courses comprises:

Genetic Algorithms

Functional Programming

Uncertain Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence

Computability, Complexity and Algorithms

Objected-Oriented Programming

Artificial Neural Networks

Introduced the Postgraduate Diploma in e-commerce in 1999 (taught jointly with the School of Economics, Mathematics and Statistics).  The programme of lecture courses comprises:

Microeconomics of e-Commerce

e-Commerce Finance

e-Commerce Markets

e-Commerce Technology

Database Systems and Data Warehousing

Intelligent Data Analysis

Introduced the M.Sc. in e-commerce in 2000 (taught jointly with the School of Economics, Mathematics and Statistics).  The programme of lecture courses comprises:

Economics for e-Commerce I

Economics for e-Commerce II

e-Commerce: Strategy and Policy

Object-Oriented Programming in Java

Development of Internet Applications

Cryptography and Security of Internet Applications


1970 – 1977

Chairman of Sub-board of Examiners in Computer Science


Birkbeck University of London

1977 – 1983

Chairman of Board of Staff Examiners in Computation for B.Sc. degree for Internal Students at Institutions having Recognised Teachers and for External Students

University of London

1978 – 1980

Member of AAB Working Party for the establishment of the new B.Sc. degree at

Goldsmiths' College

1983 – 2001

Research Admissions Tutor including responsibility for the annual departmental research review, the organisation of seminars, and the submissions to the Research Assessment Exercises

Computer Science Department, Birkbeck University of London

1983 – 1986

Member of the Higher Degrees Sub-committee (Research) of the Board of Studies in Computer Science

University of London

1987 – 1997

Chairman of the Higher Degrees Sub-committee (Research) of the Board of Studies in Computer Science

University of London

1989 – 1997

Deputy Chairman of the Board of Studies in Computer Science

University of London

1991 – 1994

Member of the Promotions Review Panel

Birkbeck University of London

1998 – 2003

Head of School of Computer Science and Information Systems

Birkbeck University of London

Refereeing and Editorial Work:

Refereed for the following journals:

ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software

Acta  Informatica

Alvey Vision Conferences

Applied Mathematical Modelling


Computational Methods in Applied Mathematics

The Computer Journal

Computers & Mathematics with Applications

Computer Networks

Data & Knowledge Engineering


European Journal of Information Systems

IEEE Internet Computing

IEEE Transactions on Communications

IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems

IEEE Transactions on Data and Knowledge Engineering


Information Processing Letters

Information Sciences

Journal of Applied Mathematics

Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics

Journal of Information Processing and Cybernetics

Journal of Network and Systems Management

Logic and Computation

Pattern Recognition Letters

Software Practice & Experience, etc

Conference Chair

ICDT2001, International Conference on Database Theory, London, 4-6 January 2001.

Member of the Editorial Board:

Annals of Mathematics, Computing & Teleinformatics


International Journal of Computer Mathematics

Research at hand:

Web Interaction and the Navigation Problem (1996 – )

The World-Wide-Web (known as the Web) has become a ubiquitous tool, used in day-to-day work, to find information and conduct business, and it is revolutionising the role and availability of information.

Although current search engines have access to large off-line databases that are frequently updated with on-line data, they are still deficient in narrowing down the list of "hits" to a manageable number and in ranking the results in a meaningful way by using contextual knowledge.  In addition, search engines do not address the problems encountered during navigation (known as "surfing") which often lead users to "getting lost in hyperspace" meaning that when following links users tend to become disoriented in terms of the goals of their original query and the relevance to the query of the information they are currently browsing.  Moreover, current search technology does not make adequate use of past knowledge about the individual user who is using the system or of past experience gained by the group of users he/she belongs to; such knowledge can be used to adapt the system to the user′s goals.

The initial work on hypertext involved the formalisation of an underlying model of the Web, motivated by the navigation problem.  In this model a hypertext database consists of an information repository, which stores the contents of the database in the form of pages, and a directed graph describing the structure of the database.  The central notion of a trail is a path through the database graph describing some logical association amongst the pages in the trail.  The semantics of a hypertext database are given in terms of a finite automaton, and the strong connection between propositional linear temporal logic and finite automata has led us to define a query language for hypertext based on a temporal logic, where time is interpreted as position.  The set of trails satisfying a query is called a Web view.  We have shown that the problem of finding a trail satisfying a query is NP-complete, in general.  Thus we have turned to probabilistic algorithms by viewing the database as a probabilistic automaton.  The probabilities can have two separate interpretations:  firstly denoting the frequencies that users traversed links, taking into account the time users spend at the destination page, and secondly the weighted relevance the user attaches to the link given a particular query.  It is a challenge how to combine these two interpretations in order to obtain an optimal trail.

Following from the above work we construct a model for web user navigation based on the entropy of a finite ergodic Markov chain.  In this model, each user navigation session can be viewed as a trail through an ergodic Markov chain such that as soon as one session is completed a new one can be started at any state with nonzero probability according to an empirical initial distribution.  Over a period of time we assume that the empirical distribution of the Markov chain probabilities stabilises in accordance with the actual transition probabilities.  The entropy of the Markov chain is central to this approach, since once the empirical distribution stabilises, the entropy of a typical chain is "close" to the entropy of the Markov chain as a consequence of the Asymptotic Equipartition Property.  Such a typical trail can be seen to represent the user′s navigation behaviour over a period of time.  We concentrate on the analysis of an iterative method for computing this entropy by considering a long navigation session, which can be viewed as the concatenation of shorter sessions each starting from a predetermined "home page".

The potential impact of this work is huge in that it can lead to dramatic improvements in the quality of Web navigation and provide a step forward in utilising knowledge about user behaviour for electronic commerce purposes.

Most recently we have proposed a stochastic evolutionary model for the growth of the Web graph, using Polya’s urn model, which gives rise to a power-law distribution.  This has been validated by empirical investigations conducted at various research institutions.  We are currently deploying this model to the evolution of the underlying distribution in the paired-comparisons methodology applied to Elo’s chess ratings.

Modelling and Revealing Structures in Biological Data (1997 – )

The approach we are taking here is to use grammatical rules to model biological knowledge.  In particular, a novel class of context-sensitive grammars, which we call positional, is being proposed which takes into account positional substitutions mimicking analogous operations in DNA.  This problem originates from research conducted with Central Middlesex Hospital in trying to identify haemoglobin variants by constructing association rules in the presence of incomplete information, categorical variables and interval-based domains.

We are also currently investigating how discrete evolutionary and co-evolutionary data sets can be integrated to produce a single congruent model.  In particular, we strive to understand the evolutionary history and functional significance of herpesvirus and host interactions.  This research is supported by The Wellcome Trust.

Cloud Computing (2007 -)

Currently the concept of a cloud compute architecture is not defined in a formal and generally accepted mode. To this end we have recently developed a flexible and dynamic cloud architecture, which is based on a few salient features, namely:  abstraction classes; functional domains; hypervisors; inter-process messages; metadata; policy inheritance and policy-based management of a cloud. The resulting cloud architecture offers several advantages over existing approaches.


SERC award, GR/E93183, worth £59,097, for work on optical flow research, which resulted in the journal publications [51, 54, 58, 59, 70].

Smaller grants from SERC, CNRS and the Royal Society.

Marie Curie Fellowship, worth €144,002, under FRAMEWORK V.

ICDT2001, European Commission €35,000, EPSRC £5,000 and smaller grants from ERCIM and Microsoft.

Microsoft grant, worth £10,000, for an interactive environment for C#.

SeLeNe project (Self e-Learning Networks), worth €283,000, funded under FP5, IST-2001-39045.  The other partners were: Université Paris-Sud, FORTH Crete, University of Cyprus and Institute of Education, London.

Wellcome Trust grant, worth approximately £115,000, for work on phylogenies in herpesvirus genomes.



1         The field boundary of two line currents immersed in a streaming plasma.  Journal of Fluid Mechanics 25, 761-768, 1966 (with C. Sozou).

2         Bounds for the inequality of Wielandt.  Numerische Mathematik 10, 142-146, 1967.

3         An empirical estimate of the relative error of the computed solution  of Ax = bThe Computer Journal 11, 91-94, 1968.

4         On matrices with a checkerboard sign distribution.  Numerische Mathematik 12, 429-430, 1968.

5         On the characteristic roots of a matrix.  American Mathematical Monthly 76, 638-643, 1969.

6         Nonnormality and Jordan condition numbers of matrices.  Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 16, 580-584, 1969.

7         On fully indecomposable matrices.  Journal of Computer and System Sciences 5, 607-622, 1971 (with T.I. Fenner).

8         On the quadratic convergence of the Jacobi method for normal matrices.  The Computer Journal 15, 274-276, 1972.

9         A note on a paper by G. Pólya.  BIT 13, 8-15, 1973 (with M.R. Farmer).

10     On the quadratic convergence of an algorithm which diagonalizes a complex symmetric matrix.  Journal of the Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications 12, 261-271, 1973 (with P.J. Anderson).

11     Matrix bounds on the spectral condition number.  Linear Algebra and Its Applications 8, 157-178, 1974 (with T.I. Fenner).

12     Some new bounds on the condition numbers of optimally scaled matrices.  Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 21, 514-524, 1974 (with T.I. Fenner).

13     A class of iteration functions for improving, simultaneously, approximations to the zeros of a polynomial.  BIT 15, 250-258, 1975 (with M.R. Farmer).

14     A Jacobi type method for complex symmetric matrices.  Numerische Mathematik 25, 347-363, 1976 (with P.J. Anderson).

15     Comments on a root finding method using Padé approximation.  BIT 17, 360-361, 1977 (with G. Claessens and L. Wuytack).

16     Optimally scalable matrices.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series A) 287, 307-349, 1977 (with T.I. Fenner).

17     An algorithm for the total, or partial, factorization of a polynomial.  Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 82, 427-437, 1977 (with M.R. Farmer).

18     Combinatorial aspects of rectangular non-negative matrices.  Discrete Mathematics 20, 217-234, 1977 (with T.I. Fenner).

19     Cycle detection in critical path networks.  Information Processing Letters 7, 15-19, 1978 (with A. Karayiannis).

20     Graph models of complex information sources.  Information Processing and Management 15, 127-131, 1979.

21     Mathematical solution for a data processing system.  Information Processing Letters 8, 252-256, 1979.

22     The generalized accelerated symmetric overrelaxation method.  BIT 20, 378- 381, 1980.

23     On a cycle finding algorithm.  Information Processing Letters 11, 33-36, 1980.

24     A binary tree representation and related algorithms for generating integer partitions.  The Computer Journal 23, 332-337,1980 (with T.I. Fenner).

25     A note on traversal algorithms for triply linked binary trees.  BIT 21, 153-156, 1981 (with T.I. Fenner).

26     An analysis of two related loop-free algorithms for generating integer partitions.  Acta Informatica 16, 237-252, 1981 (with T.I. Fenner).

27     Enumerating the cycles of a digraph: a new preprocessing strategy.  Information Sciences 27, 163-182, 1982 (with P. Thanisch).

28     Une Note sur le procédé itératif de Mme Marica D. Prešić.  Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, Série I, 295, 707-710, 1982.

29     Testing a dependency-preserving decomposition for losslessness.  Information Systems 8, 25-27, 1983 (with P. Thanisch).

30     Tree traversal related algorithms for generating integer partitions.  SIAM Journal on Computing 12, 551-564, 1983 (with T.I. Fenner).

31     Higher-order iteration functions for simultaneously approximating polynomial zeros.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 14, 45-58, 1983.

32     Certain NP-complete matching problems.  Information Sciences 32, 117-121, 1984.

33     Loop-free algorithms for traversing binary trees.  BIT 24, 33-44, 1984 (with T.I. Fenner).

34     Locating multiples zeros interactively.  Computers and Mathematics with Applications 11, 595-603, 1985 (with M.R. Farmer).

35     An algorithm for the computation of zeros of a special class of entire functions.  Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 12 & 13, 433-445, 1985 (with M.R. Farmer).

36     A study of binary tree traversal algorithms and a tag-free threaded representation.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 20, 171-185, 1986 (with T.I. Fenner).

37     The nearest neighbor and the Bayes error rates.*  IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 9, 254-262, 1987 (with S.J. Maybank).

38     Losslessness and project-join constructibility in relational databases.  Acta Informatica 24, 131-144, 1987 (with P. Thanisch).

39     On finding a worst-case optimal fourth normal form database decomposition.  BIT 27, 157-162, 1987 (with P. Thanisch).

40     NURQL: A nested universal relation query language.  Information Systems 14, 307-316, 1989 (with M. Levene).

41     Diagonal transformations.  Zastosowania Matematyki 20, 245-254, 1990.

42     The nested relation type model.  An application of domain theory to databases.  The Computer Journal 33, 19-30, 1990 (with M. Levene).

43     Succinct database schemes.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 33, 55-69, 1990 (with G. Jones and P. Thanisch).

44     Correction to "Null Values in Nested Relational Databases" by M. A. Roth, H. F. Korth and A. Silberschatz.  Acta Informatica 28, 603-605, 1991 (with M. Levene).

45     A domain theoretic characterisation of the universal relation.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 40, 69-74, 1991 (with M. Levene).

46     Inferring null join dependencies in relational databases.  BIT 32, 413-429, 1992 (with M. Levene).

47     Compact scheme forests in nested normal form.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 45, 23-48, 1992 (with P. Thanisch).

48     A modal logic formalism for distributed and parallel knowledge bases.  Parallel Algorithms and Applications 1, 11-27, 1993 (with M. Levene).

49     Semantics for null extended nested relations.  ACM Transactions on Database Systems 18, 414-459, 1993 (with M. Levene).

50     A fully precise null extended nested relational algebra.  Fundamenta Informaticae 19, 303-342, 1993 (with M. Levene).

51     New perspectives on optical flow.  Pattern Recognition 26, 1125-1136, 1993 (with P.D. Sozou).

52     The nested universal relation data model.  Journal of Computer and System Sciences 49, 683-717, 1994 (with M. Levene).

53     Finding compact scheme forests in nested normal form is NP-hard.  Information and Computation 110, 19-41, 1994 (with J. Nummenmaa and P. Thanisch).

54     Moving through a mirage.  Applied Optics 33, 4644-4651, 1994 (with P.D. Sozou).

55     A correspondence between variable relations and three-valued propositional logic.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 55, 29-38, 1995 (with M. Levene).

56     Dependencies for an extended object-oriented database model.  International Journal of Computer Mathematics 55, 1-17, 1995 (with P. Pouyioutas).

57     A graph-based data model and its ramifications.  IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 7, 809-823, 1995 (with M. Levene).

58     Analysis of camera behavior during tracking.  IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 17, 765-778, 1995 (with S. Reddi).

59     First order algorithm with three clusters of optical flow vectors.  International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology 7, 33-40, 1996 (with S. Reddi).

60     Categorisation of computable database queries.  Fundamenta  Informaticae 27, 319-348, 1996 (with M. Levene).

61     The additivity problem for functional dependencies in incomplete relations.  Acta Informatica 34, 135-149, 1997 (with M. Levene).

62     Null inclusion dependencies in relational databases.  Information and Computation 136, 67-108, 1997 (with M.Levene).

63     An AI approach to dynamic visual field testing.  Computers and Biomedical Research 31, 143-163, 1998 (with K. Cho and X. Liu).

64     Axiomatisation of functional dependencies in incomplete relations.  Theoretical Computer Science 206, 283-300, 1998 (with M. Levene).

65     A probabilistic approach to navigation in hypertext.  Information Sciences 114, 165-186, 1999 (with M. Levene).

66     Database design for incomplete relations.  ACM Transactions on Database Systems 24, 80-126, 1999 (with M. Levene).

67     Navigation in hypertext is easy only sometimes.  SIAM Journal on Computing 29, 728-760, 1999 (with M. Levene).

68     How to prevent interaction of functional and inclusion dependencies.  Information Processing Letters 71, 115-125, 1999 (with M. Levene).

69     The behaviour of an algorithm for motion recovery and geometry of the environment. International Journal of Applied Mathematics 2(11), 1291-1325, 2000 (with T. Fenner and S. Reddi).

70     A logic of access control.  The Computer Journal 44(2), 137-149, 2001 (with J. Crampton and G. O’Shea).

71     Zipf’s law for web surfers.  Knowledge and Information Systems 3, 120-129, 2001 (with J. Borges and M. Levene).

72     The completion of a poset in a lattice of antichains.  International Mathematical Journal 1(3), 223-238, 2001 (with J. Crampton).

73     Authorisations and antichains.  Operating Systems Review 35(3), 6-15, 2001 (with J. Crampton).

74     A generalisation of entity and referential integrity in relational databases.  Informatique Théoretique et Applications 35, 113-127, 2001 (with M. Levene).

75     Guaranteeing no interaction between functional dependencies and tree-like inclusion dependencies.  Theoretical Computer Science B 254, 683-690, 2001 (with M. Levene).

76     Web interaction and the navigation problem in hypertext.  Encyclopaedia of Microcomputers 28, 381-398, 2002 (with M. Levene).

77     A stochastic model for the evolution of the Web.  Computer Networks 39, 277-287, 2002 (with T. Fenner, M. Levene and R. Wheeldon).

78     Kemeny’s constant and the random surfer.  American Mathematical Monthly 109(8), 741-745, 2002 (with M. Levene).

79     Why is the snowflake schema a good data warehouse design?  Information Systems 28, 225-240, 2002 (with M. Levene).

80     Administrative scope: A foundation for role-based administrative models. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security 6(2), 201-231, 2003 (with J. Crampton).

81     Computing the entropy of user navigation in the Web.  International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making 2(3), 1-18, 2003 (with M. Levene).

82     A stochastic evolutionary model exhibiting power-law behaviour with an exponential cutoff. Physica  A 355, 641-656, 2005 (with T.I. Fenner and M. Levene).

83     Extraction de règles d’association pour la prédiction de valeurs manquantes. ARIMA, Special Issue, November, 103-124, 2005 (with S. Jami, T.Y. Jen, D. Laurent and O. Sy).

84     A stochastic model for the evolution of the web allowing link deletion.  ACM Transactions on Internet Technology 6(2), 117-130, 2006 (with T.I. Fenner and M. Levene).

85     A GA-based tool to predict conflicts between nations. Journal of Mathematics, Computing and Teleinformatics 1(4), 1-30, 2006 (with T. Hackworth).

86     A model for collaboration networks giving rise to a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. Social Networks 29, 70-80, 2007 (with T.I. Fenner and M. Levene).

87     Quality of manual data collection in Java software: an empirical investigation. Empirical Software Engineering 12(3), 275-293, 2007 (with S. Counsell and R. Najjar).

88     A stochastic evolutionary growth model for social networks. Computer Networks 51, 4586-4595, 2007 (with T.I. Fenner, M. Levene and G. Roussos).

89     Modelling the navigation potential of a web page. Theoretical Computer Science 396, 88-96, 2008 (with T.I. Fenner and M. Levene).

90     Similarity clustering of proteins using substantive knowledge and reconstruction of evolutionary gene histories in herpesvirus. Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 125, 569-581, 2010 (with R. Camargo, T. Fenner, P. Kellam and B. Mirkin).

91     Evaluation of the 'Replace Multiple Constructors with Creation Methods' refactoring in Java systems. IET Software 4, 218-333, 2010 (with S. Counsell and R. Najjar).

92     Predicting the long tail of book sales: Unearthing the power-law exponent.  Physica   A 389, 2416-2421, 2010 (with T.I. Fenner and M. Levene).

93     An approach to enable cloud-computing by the abstraction of event-processing classes.  GSTF International Journal on Computing 1, 138-144, 2010 (with J. Eccles).

94     A discrete evolutionary model for chess players’ ratings.  IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, (with T.I. Fenner and M. Levene).  In press.

Workshop and Conference Proceedings

1         New IDMS design and documentation tools produced for the FEDOS database.  In Proceedings of the Third British National Conference on Databases (BNCOD3), Leeds, Cambridge University Press, Editor J. Longstaff, 91-101, 1984 (with El-S. N.O. El-Shebini).

2         Do embedded dependencies always lead to a wild goose chase?  In Proceedings of the Third British National Conference on Databases (BNCOD3), Leeds, Cambridge University Press, Editor J. Longstaff, 41-56, 1984 (with P. Thanisch).

3         A polynomial-time join dependency implication algorithm for unary multi-valued dependencies.  In Proceedings of International Conference on Database Theory, Rome, Springer-Verlag, Editors G. Ausiello and P. Atzeni, 397-408, 1986 (with P. Thanisch).

4         Project-join constructibility for NF2 relational databases.  In Proceedings of IIIèmes Journées Bases de Données Avancées, Port Camargue, INRIA, Editor M. Adiba, 143-163, 1987 (with M. Levene).

5         A universal relation model for nested relations.  In Proceedings of International Conference on Extending Database Technology, Venice, Italy, Springer-Verlag, Editors J.W. Schmidt, S. Ceri and M. Missikoff, 294-308, 1988 (with M. Levene).

6         g-acyclic database schemes and nested relations.  In Proceedings of International Conference on Nested Relations and Complex Objects in Databases, Darmstadt, West Germany, Springer-Verlag, Editors S. Abiteboul, P. C. Fischer and H.-J. Schek, 313-323, 1989 (with M. Levene).

7         A domain theoretic approach to incomplete information in nested relational databases.  In Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Foundations of Data Organization and Algorithms, Paris, France, Springer-Verlag, Editors W. Litwin and H.-J. Schek, 439-456, 1989 (with M. Levene).

8         Modelling incomplete information in complex objects.  In Proceedings of the Seventh British National Conference on Databases (BNCOD7), Edinburgh, Scotland, Cambridge University Press, Editor M.H. Williams, 241-259, 1989 (with M. Levene).

9         A query algebra for an extended object-oriented database model.  In Proceedings of International Symposium on Database Systems for Advanced Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 89-98, 1991 (with P. Pouyioutas).

10     Self organising feature map for clustering in persistent object stores.  In Proceedings of International Workshop on Next Generation Information Technologies and Systems, Haifa, Israel, 76-84, 1993 (with E. Tuv).

11     An intelligent hypertext storage manager.  In Proceedings of Workshop on Intelligent Hypertext, Arlington, Virginia, USA, 55-58, 1993 (with E. Tuv).

12     Visual field forecasting using an artificial neural network.  In Proceedings of the Second European Congress on Computational Intelligence (EUFIT-94), Orlando, USA, 1656-1661, 1994 (with K.W. Cho, X. Liu and J. Wu).

13     Hyperstore: A persistent object store for next-generation applications.  In Proceedings of the 5th Australasian Database Conference (ADC’94), Christchurch, New Zealand, 213-226, 1994 (with E. Tuv).

14     The additivity problem for data dependencies in incomplete relational databases.  In Proceedings of the Workshop on Semantics in Databases, Prague, Czechia, 49-62, 1995 (with M. Levene).

15     Decision making in dynamic visual field testing by backpropagation, C4.5 and multiple regression.  In Proceedings of IPMU-96: 6th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, Granada, Spain, 401-6, 1996 (with K.W. Cho and X. Liu).

16     An 8-level standard framework for multiple-component systems across a distibuted heterogeneous environment.  In Proceedings of the 10th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, Nevada, USA, Editors S.G. Akl, K. Li and Y. Pan, 691-703, 1998 (with J. Eccles).

17     Learning from an incomplete and uncertain data set: the identification of variant haemoglobins.  In Proceedings of ECAI Workshop on Intelligent Data Analysis in Medicine and Pharmacology, Brighton, England, 58-63, 1998 (with S. Jami and X. Liu).

18     The additivity problem for data dependencies in incomplete relational databases.  In Semantics in Databases, Editors B. Thalheim and L Libkin, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 136-169, 1998 (with M. Levene).

19     Evaluating an eye screening test.  In Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium, IDA-99, Amsterdam, Netherlands, LNCS 1642, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Editors D.J. Hand et al., 461-472, 1999 (with G. Cheng, K. Cho, X. Liu and J.X. Wu).

20     Modelling multivariate time series.  In Proceedings of Intelligent Data Analysis in Medicine and Pharmacology, Washington DC, USA, 67-78, 1999 (with G. Cheng, X. Liu, S. Swift and A. Tucker).

21     An OMT-based distributed processing architecture for a practical clustered failover environment.  In Proceedings of the 8th International Colloquium on Numerical Analysis and Computer Science with Applications, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 8-9, 1999.  Extended Abstract of Invited Lecture (with J. Eccles).

22     A publish/subscribe framework: Push technology in e-commerce.  In Proceedings of 17th British National Conference, BNCOD2000, Exeter, England, 153-170, 2000  (with E.C. Cheng).

23     A loosely-coupled model for resilient software and hardware architectures implemented in a network-based environment.  In Proceedings of the 9th International Colloquium on Numerical Analysis and Computer Science with Applications, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, 55-56, 2000.  Extended Abstract of Invited Lecture (with J. Eccles).

24     Administrative scope and role hierarchy operations. In Proceedings of SACMAT02, 7th Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies, Monterey, California, 145-154, 2002 (with J. Crampton).

25     On the relationship between encapsulation, inheritance and friends in C++ software.  In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software and Systems Engineering and their Applications (ICSSEA’02), Paris, France, 2002, 12 pages (with S. Counsell, K. Mannock and R. Najjar).

26     The role of constructors in the context of refactoring object-oriented systems.  In Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, Benevento, Italy, 111-120, 2003 (with S. Counsell, K. Mannock and R. Najjar).

27     Extraction de règles d'association pour la prédiction de valeurs manquantes. In 7th African Conference on Research in Computer Science, Hammamet, Tunisia, 2004, 487-494 (with S. Jami, T.Y. Jen, D. Laurent and O. Sy).

28     The quality of automated and manual data collection processes in Java software: an empirical comparison.  In  Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE’04), Riga, Latvia, 101-112, 2004 (with S. Counsell, Y. Hassoun and R. Najjar).

29     Encapsulation and the vagaries of a simple refactoring: an empirical study.  In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software and Systems Engineering and their Applications (ICSSEA’05), Paris, France, 2005, 8 pages (with S. Counsell and R. Najjar).

30     Common refactorings, a dependency graph and some code smells: an empirical study of Java OSS. In Proceedings of the 5th ACM-IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (ISESE’06), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 288-296, 2006 (with S. Counsell, Y. Hassoun and R. Najjar).

31     The effectiveness of refactoring, based on a compatibility testing taxonomy and a dependency graph. In Proceedings of Testing: Academia and Industry Conference - Practice and Research Techniques (TAIC PART 2006), Windsor, United Kingdom, 181-190, 2006 (with S. Counsell, Y. Hassoun, R.M. Hierons and R. Najjar).

32     A meta-analysis approach to refactoring and XP. In Proceedings of the 5th ACS/IEEE International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, (AICCSA 2007), Amman, Jordan, 67-75, 2007 (with S. Counsell and R. M. Hierons).

33     Code smell eradication and associated refactoring. In Proceedings of the 2nd European Computing Conference (ECC ’08), Malta, 102-107, 2008 (with S. Counsell, H. Hamza and T. Hall).

34     Is manual data collection hampered by the presence of inner classes or class size? In Advanced Techniques in Computing Sciences and Software Engineering, Elleithy Khaled (Ed.) 2010, ISBN: 978-90-481-3659-9, Springer (with S. Counsell and R. Najjar).

35     A multi-domain design and graphics modeling system. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality (CGVR'10), Arizona, USA, 371-376, 2010 (with P. T. Daniel and K. Mannock).

36     A cloud-computing environment based on a model of integrated abstraction classes. In Cloud Computing and Virtualization (CCV’10), Singapore, 153-162, 2010 (with J. Eccles).

37     A teaching aid for: Unified technical graphics modelling and design analysis. In Proceedings of the 2nd Asia Conference on Education (ACE), Osaka, Japan, 1419-1439, 2010 (with P. T. Daniel and T. Daniel ).   

38     Functional domain concepts in the modelling of cloud structures and the behaviour of integrated policy-based systems through the use of abstraction classes.  In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2011), Noordwijerhout, Netherlands, 86-97, 2011 (with J. Eccles).



1         A Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond, Springer-Verlag, 625 pages, 1999 (with M. Levene).


The FEDOS project

The original idea of this project, namely, the application of database technology to Finite Element Structures in engineering, dates back to 1975, and can be found in the M.Sc. project of Nadir Shebini, one of my thereafter part-time Ph.D. students, who completed his thesis in 1985.  In view of the enormous resources needed to carry out this project, we applied for grants both to the SERC and British industry; unfortunately they were both timid in risking any capital resources whatsoever.

In 1978 McDermott Engineering (ME), London, did sponsor the project and provided on their site all the necessary software, hardware and manpower. A new engineering programming language, called MDL, was developed for knowledge representation in a Finite Element environment.

FEDOS was used by a software house of the said firm, and is the main vehicle for the certification of the shutdown nuclear power stations in the USA prior to being recommissioned. ME are making at least 5 million dollars per annum out of this software product!

Optical flow

This work was carried out in collaboration with Marconi Command and Control Systems (MCCS), Frimley.  The objective was to study the problem of obtaining information about the external world from moving images.  The image motions, termed optical flow, are of great interest in computer vision, because of the wealth of information they contain.  S.J. Maybank, an employee of MCCS, working under my supervision, successfully completed his Ph.D. thesis in 1988.  Ten publications have resulted and have appeared in learned journals such as

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A

Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series A

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence (PAMI), etc.

A CASE research studentship, in collaboration with MCCS, was awarded by the SERC;  the aim was the " of a prototype database system that is associated with the image sequence and that is updated as both the images and our interpretation of them change. The image should include prior knowledge about the scene in view". This work is primarily contained in the Ph.D. thesis of S. Reddi.

Cordic arithmetic and FFT

This work was carried out in collaboration with Plessey Avionics, now taken over by GEC. The basic parallelisation ideas are contained in the Ph.D. thesis of K.J. Jones; a subsidiary of GEC is now constructing a VLSI chip, based on these ideas, to be used in medical image processing.

Applied AI in medicine

This work is in collaboration with Moorfields Eye Hospital/Institute of Ophthalmology (MEH/IoO), London and Central Meddlesex Hospital (CMH), London. It involves the application of recent AI techniques in medical research; in particular, the diagnosis of blinding diseases (MEH/IoO) and the identification of haemoglobin variants (CMH) under uncertainty. The latter is funded by the Northwest Thames Regional Health Authority and EPSRC (CASE), whereas the former is funded by British Council for the Prevention of Blindness.


* This paper was selected worldwide to appear, amongst others, in the book Nearest Neighbour (NN) Norms: NN Pattern Classification Techniques, Editor: B.V. Darasathy, Dynetic Inc., USA, IEEE, ISBN 0-8186-8930-0.