10. Transport Layer


  1. TCP/IP layers
  2. TCP/IP layers with some protocols
  3. Transport Protocols
  4. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
  5. Endpoint Identification
  6. Well-known port numbers
  7. The User Datagram Protocol
  8. The Connectionless Paradigm
  9. Message-Oriented Interface
  10. Connectionless Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
  11. UDP Segment Structure
  12. UDP Header Example (DNS Request)
  13. UDP Header Example (DNS Response)
  14. Internet Checksum
  15. Checksum Example
  16. Example of Checksum Failure
  17. UDP Encapsulation
  18. Protocols Using UDP
  19. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  20. End-To-End Service
  21. Connection-Oriented Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
  22. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Example
  23. Reliable Data Transfer
  24. Simple Reliable Data Transfer
  25. Pipelined Reliable Data Transfer
  26. Packet Loss and Retransmission
  27. Packet Loss and Retransmission - Example
  28. Adaptive Retransmission
  29. Adaptive Retransmission - Example
  30. TCP Segment Structure
  31. TCP Flags
  32. TCP Example (HTTP Request)
  33. TCP Example (HTTP Response)
  34. Sequence and Acknowledgement Numbers
  35. Example: Lost Acknowledgement
  36. Example: Single Retransmission
  37. Example: No Retransmission Necessary
  38. Flow Control
  39. Flow Control Example
  40. TCP Connection Establishment
  41. Example: Connection Establishment
  42. TCP Example SYN
  43. TCP Example ACK+SYN
  44. TCP Connection Release
  45. Congestion Control
  46. Links to more information

10.1. TCP/IP layers

TCP/IP 5-layer reference model

10.2. TCP/IP layers with some protocols

Internet protocols

10.3. Transport Protocols

10.4. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

Transport-layer multiplexing and demultiplexing

10.5. Endpoint Identification

Transport-layer segment showing port-number fields

10.6. Well-known port numbers

10.7. The User Datagram Protocol

10.8. The Connectionless Paradigm

10.9. Message-Oriented Interface

10.10. Connectionless Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

10.11. UDP Segment Structure

10.12. UDP Header Example (DNS Request)

DNS request packet capture

10.13. UDP Header Example (DNS Response)

DNS response packet capture

10.14. Internet Checksum

10.15. Checksum Example

Example checksum

10.16. Example of Checksum Failure

Checksum failure

10.17. UDP Encapsulation

UDP Encapsulation

10.18. Protocols Using UDP

10.19. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

10.20. End-To-End Service

10.21. Connection-Oriented Multiplexing and Demultiplexing

10.22. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Example

Two clients communicating with the same port numbers

10.23. Reliable Data Transfer

10.24. Simple Reliable Data Transfer

10.25. Pipelined Reliable Data Transfer

10.26. Packet Loss and Retransmission

10.27. Packet Loss and Retransmission - Example

Example retransmission

10.28. Adaptive Retransmission

10.29. Adaptive Retransmission - Example

Timeout and retransmission

10.30. TCP Segment Structure

TCP segment structure

10.31. TCP Flags

10.32. TCP Example (HTTP Request)

TCP segment for HTTP GET

10.33. TCP Example (HTTP Response)

TCP segment for HTTP response

10.34. Sequence and Acknowledgement Numbers

10.35. Example: Lost Acknowledgement

Retransmission due to lost acknowledgement

10.36. Example: Single Retransmission

Second segment not retransmitted

10.37. Example: No Retransmission Necessary

No retransmission necessary

10.38. Flow Control

10.39. Flow Control Example

TCP flow control

10.40. TCP Connection Establishment

10.41. Example: Connection Establishment

TCP open connection

10.42. TCP Example SYN

TCP connection request

10.43. TCP Example ACK+SYN

TCP acknowledgement and connection request

10.44. TCP Connection Release

TCP close connection

10.45. Congestion Control

10.46. Links to more information

See Chapter 3 of [Kurose and Ross], Chapters 25 and 26 of [Comer] and parts of Chapter 6 of [Tanenbaum].